For the poet Philips Whitely, who was brought to colonial New England as a slave in 1761, the formal literary code of eighteenth-century English was thrice removed: by the initial barrier of the unfamiliar English language, by the discrepancy between spoken and literary forms of English, and by the African tradition of oral rather than written verbal art. Wheatley transcended these barriers? she learned the English language and English literary forms so quickly and well that she was composing good poetry in English within a few years of her arrival in New England.
Wheatley’s experience exemplifies the meeting of oral and written literary cultures. The aesthetic principles of the African oral tradition were preserved in America by folk artists in work songs, dancing, field hollers, religious music, the use of the drum, and, after the drum was forbidden, in the perpetuation of drum effects in song. African languages and the functions of language in African societies not only contributed to the emergence of a distinctive Black English but also exerted demonstrable effects on the manner in which other Americans spoke English. Given her African heritage and her facility with English and the conventions of English poetry, Wheatley’s work had the potential to apply the ideas of a written literature to an oral literary tradition in the creation of an African American literary language.
But this was a potential that her poetry unfortunately did not exploit. The standards of eighteenth-century English poetry, which itself reflected little of the American language, led Wheatley to develop a notion of poetry as a closed system, derived from imitation of earlier written works. No place existed for the rough-and-ready Americanized English she heard in the streets, for the English spoken by Black people, or for Africanisms. The conventions of eighteenth-century neoclassical poetry ruled out casual talk; her choice and feelings had to be generalized according to rules of poetic diction and characterization; the particulars of her African past, if they were to be dealt with at all, had to be subordinated to the reigning conventions. African poetry did not count as poetry in her new situation, and African aesthetic canons were irrelevant to the new context because no linguistic or social framework existed to reinforce them. Wheatley adopted a foreign language and a foreign literary tradition; they were not extensions of her past experience, but replacements.
Thus limited by the eighteenth-century English literary code, Wheatley’s poetry contributed little to the development of a distinctive African American literary language. Yet by the standards of the literary conventions in which she chose to work, Wheatley’s poetry is undeniably accomplished, and she is justly celebrated as the first Black American poet.
1) Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Folk artists employed more principles of African oral tradition in their works than did Phillis Wheatley in her poetry.
(B) Although Phillis Wheatley had to overcome significant barriers in learning English, she mastered the literary conventions of eighteen-century English as well as African aesthetic canons.
(C) Phillis Wheatley’s poetry did not fulfill the potential inherent in her experience but did represent a significant accomplishment.
(D) The evolution of a distinctive African American literary language can be traced from the creations of African American folk artists to the poetry of Phillis Wheatley.
(E) Phillis Wheatley joined with African American folk artists in preserving the principles of the African oral tradition.
2) The approach to poetry taken by a modern-day Italian immigrant in America would be most analogous to Phillis Wheatley’s approach, as it is described in the passage, if the immigrant
(A) translated Italian literary forms into the American idiom
(B) combined Italian and American literary traditions into a new form of poetic expression
(C) contributed to the development of a distinctive Italian American literary style
(D) defined artistic expression in terms of eighteenth-century Italian poetic conventions
(E) adopted the language and forms of modern American poetry
3) According to the passage, African languages had a notable influence on
(A) the religious music of colonists in New England
(B) the folk art of colonists in New England
(C) formal written English
(D) American speech patterns
(E) eighteen-century aesthetic principles
4) By a ‘closed system’ of poetry (line 34-35), the author most probably means poetry that
(A) cannot be written by those who are not raised knowing its conventions
(B) has little influence on the way language is actually spoken
(C) substitutes its own conventions for the aesthetic principles of the past
(D) does not admit the use of street language and casual talk
(E) is ultimately rejected because its conventions leave little room for further development
5) According to the passage, the standards of eighteenth century English poetry permitted Wheatley to include which one of the following in her poetry?
(A) generalized feelings
(B) Americanized English
(C) themes from folk art
(D) casual talk
(E) Black speech
6) Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s argument concerning the role that Wheatley played in the evolution of an African American literary language?
(A) Wheatley’s poetry was admired in England for its faithfulness to the conventions of neoclassical poetry.
(B) Wheatley compiled a history in English of her family’s experiences in Africa and America.
(C) The language barriers that Wheatley overcame were eventually transcended by all who were brought from Africa as slaves.
(D) Several modern African American poets acknowledge the importance of Wheatley’s poetry to American literature.
(E) Scholars trace themes and expressions in African American poetry back to the poetry of Wheatley.
7) It can be inferred that the author of the passage would most probably have praised Phillis Wheatley’s poetry more if it had
(A) affected the manner in which slaves and freed Black people spoke English
(B) defined African American artistic expression in terms of earlier works
(C) adopted the standards of eighteenth-century English poetry
(D) combined elements of the English literary tradition with those of the African oral tradition
(E) focused on the barriers that written English literary forms presented to Black artists
8) Which one of the following most accurately characterizes the author’s attitude with respect to Phillis Wheatley’s literary accomplishments?
(A) enthusiastic advocacy
(B) qualified admiration
(C) dispassionate impartiality
(D) detached ambivalence
(E) perfunctory dismissal
A recent generation of historians of science, far from portraying accepted scientific views as objectively accurate reflections of a natural world, explain the acceptance of such views in terms of the ideological biases of certain influential scientists or the institutional and rhetorical power such scientists wield. As an example of ideological bias, it has been argued that Pasteur rejected the theory of spontaneous generation not because of experimental evidence but because he rejected the materialist ideology implicit in that doctrine. These historians seem to find allies in certain philosophers of science who argue that scientific views are not imposed by reality but are free inventions of creative minds, and that scientific claims are never more than brave conjectures, always subject to inevitable future falsification. While these philosophers of science themselves would not be likely to have much truck with the recent historians, it is an easy step from their views to the extremism of the historians.
While this rejection of the traditional belief that scientific views are objective reflections of the world may be fashionable, it is deeply implausible. We now know, for example, that water is made of hydrogen and oxygen and that parents each contribute one-half of their children’s complement of genes. I do not believe any serious-minded and informed person can claim that these statements are not factual descriptions of the world or that they will inevitably be falsified.
However, science’s accumulation of lasting truths about the world is not by any means a straightforward matter. We certainly need to get beyond the naive view that the truth will automatically reveal itself to any scientist who looks in the right direction; most often, in fact, a whole series of prior discoveries is needed to tease reality’s truths from experiment and observation. And the philosophers of science mentioned above are quite right to argue that new scientific ideas often correct old ones by indicating errors and imprecision (as, say, Newton’s ideas did to Kepler’s). Nor would I deny that there are interesting questions to be answered about the social processes in which scientific activity is embedded. The persuasive processes by which particular scientific groups establish their experimental results as authoritative are themselves social activities and can be rewardingly studied as such. Indeed, much of the new work in the history of science has been extremely revealing about the institutional interactions and rhetorical devices that help determine whose results achieve prominence.
But one can accept all this without accepting the thesis that natural reality never plays any part at all in determining what scientists believe. What the new historians ought to be showing us is how those doctrines that do in fact fit reality work their way through the complex social processes of scientific activity to eventually receive general scientific acceptance.
1) It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following characterizations of scientific truth?
(A) It is often implausible.
(B) It is subject to inevitable falsification.
(C) It is rarely obvious and transparent.
(D) It is rarely discovered by creative processes.
(E) It is less often established by experimentation than by the rhetorical power of scientists.
2) According to the passage, Kepler’s ideas provide an example of scientific ideas that were
(A) corrected by subsequent inquiries
(B) dependent on a series of prior observations
(C) originally thought to be imprecise and then later confirmed
(D) established primarily by the force of an individuals rhetorical power
(E) specifically taken up for the purpose of falsification by later scientists
3) In the third paragraph of the passage, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) presenting conflicting explanations for a phenomenon
(B) suggesting a field for possible future research
(C) qualifying a previously expressed point of view
(D) providing an answer to a theoretical question
(E) attacking the assumptions that underlie a set of beliefs
4) The use of the words “any serious-minded and informed person’ serves which one of the following functions in the context of the passage?
(A) to satirize chronologically earlier notions about the composition of water
(B) to reinforce a previously stated opinion about certain philosophers of science
(C) to suggest the author’s reservations about the “traditional belief”
(D) to anticipate objections from someone who would argue for an objectively accurate description of the world
(E) to discredit someone who would argue that certain scientific assertions do not factually describe reality
5) It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely agree with which one of the following statements about the relationship between the views of “certain philosophers of science” (lines l2-13) and those of the recent historians?
(A) These two views are difficult to differentiate.
(B) These two views share some similarities.
(C) The views of the philosophers ought to be seen as the source of the historians’ views.
(D) Both views emphasize the rhetorical power of scientists.
(E) The historians explicitly acknowledge that their views are indebted to those of the philosophers.
6) Which one of the following best characterizes the author’s assessment of the opinions of the new historians of science, as these opinions are presented in the passage?
(A) They lack any credibility.
(B) They themselves can be rewardingly studied as social phenomena.
(C) They are least convincing when they concern the actions of scientific groups.
(D) Although they are gross overstatements, they lead to some valuable insights.
(E) Although they are now popular, they are likely to be refused soon.
7) In concluding the passage, the author does which one of the following?
(A) offers a prescription
(B) presents a paradox
(C) makes a prediction
(D) concedes an argument
(E) anticipates objections
1) a debate over
2) a lot
3) a responsibility to
4) a result of
5) a sequence of
6) acclaimed as is the correct idiom (Acclaimed to be is wrong)
7) accompanied by….
8) adapted for
9) Adverb twice cannot be an object of proposition ?by?. ?Increase by twice? is incorrect; ?doubled? is correct
10) affect to..
11) agree with
12) Aid in (Aid for is incorrect)
13) Allergy to (Allergy of, allergy for are incorrect)
14) Allocated to is the correct idiom
15) alternative to….
16) as a result of…
17) as an instance of
18) as good as…or better than
19) as great as
20) as much as
21) Associate X with Y
22) assume …to be of…
23) At least as strong as(At least as great as)
24) Attempt to ?do something? (Attempt at doing is incorrect).
25) attend to (someone)
26) attribute X to Y/X is attributed to Y
27) based on
28) believe X to be Y
29) Believed to have
30) benefit from…
31) better served by X than Y ..
32) between X and Y
33) Both X and Y (Both X as well as Y is incorrect) Both at X and at Y is correct. Both on X or on Y is correct.
34) Business ethics – Is a singular word
35) call…to consider…
36) centers on
37) Combined X with Y OR Combined X and Y (Both are correct)
38) Compensate for
39) Concerned for – worried; concerned with – related/affiliated
40) conform to
41) Consider X to be Y (a little controversial)
42) contrary to…
43) created with
44) Credit X Rupees to Y?s account (When money is involved)
45) Credit X with discovering Y (Credit with doing something)
46) decline in….
47) defined as
48) depends on whether
49) depicted as
50) Descendent of (Descendent for is incorrect)
51) Different from one another (Different one from the other is wrong)
52) Distinguish between X and Y (2 very different items, distinguished, say red and green colors)
53) Distinguish between X and Y (Distinguish X from Y is incorrect)
54) Distinguish X from Y (Two pretty similar items, say original paintings from fake ones)
55) doubt that
57) enable to
58) entrusted with…
59) Estimated to be (Estimated at is incorrect)
60) expected that X would be Y …
61) expected X to be Y …
62) extent to …
63) fascinated by
64) for jobs..
65) for over…XXX years…
66) forbid X to do Y identical with
67) forcing …to…
68) From X to Y (Grow from 2 million to 3 billion) (From X up to Y is wrong)
69) Given credit for being ones – who
70) had better(do)
71) In an attempt to (gain control)
72) in contrast to
73) independent from
74) indifferent towards
75) Intent on
76) interaction of …
77) Just as – So too
78) May be (This is a word) is idiomatic, maybe (This means perhaps) is not idiomatic
79) Mistake X for Y
80) modeled after
81) more than ever
82) more X than Y …
83) more…than / less…than
84) more…than ever…
85) must have (done)
86) Native of (Native to is also used in some cases)
87) Neither – Nor should have parallel forms associated to it.
88) no less….than
89) No sooner than
90) Not in a flash but in a
91) not only…but also
92) Not so much to X as to Y
93) not X …but rather Y ..
94) noted that ..
95) one attributes X (an effect) to Y (a cause)
96) One X for every ZZ( some numeric number) Y’s …
97) Persuaded X to do Y
98) Plead guilty for failing
99) Potential for causing
100) potential to
101) prohibits X from doing Y
102) range from X to Y
103) range of …
104) reason?.. that incorrectly seen as reason?.. because
105) ?Regard as? is the correct idiom — Regarded as having, Regarded as ones who have
107) regards X as Y …
108) replacing with…
109) Require that X be Y (Not require that X is Y)
110) research to
111) responsible for
112) restitution…for …
113) resulting in
114) retroactive to
115) Same as X..as to Y
116) same to X as to Y
117) seem…to…(seem is plural)
118) so (adjective) that
119) So X as to be Y (So unreal as to be true)
120) So X that Y (So poor that they steal)
121) subscribe to
123) targeted at
124) that X …that Y …
125) That X is called for is indicated both by Y and by Z.
126) the same to X as to Y
127) to .. used to (example to get used to or to become used to)
128) to contrast X with Y
129) To exchange X for Y (exchange X with Y or any other form is incorrect)
130) to mistake X for Y
131) to monitor …
132) to orbit…
133) To ratify (At ratifying is incorrect) An attempt to ratify is the correct use
134) to result in
135) to sacrifice X for Y
136) to survive
137) To try to fix is the right idiom (to try and fix is incorrect)
138) To worry about someone?s condition (To keep worrying over an action)
139) used in the construction…
140) used to (do)
141) viewed marriage as
142) way to provide (Way for providing is incorrect)
143) When ?rates? means ?prices charged? it should be followed with ?for?
144) widely anticipated that….
145) Worried about (When talking about someone?s condition)
146) X [is] expected to Y
147) X as Y ..
148) X forbids Y to do Z …
149) X is attributed to Y
150) X is different from Y (different than Y is incorrect)
151) X is to what Y is to
152) X is unknown, nor it is known – is a correct idiom (Neither is not required)
153) X ordered that Y be Z’ed…
154) X ordered Y to be Z’ed..
155) X ordered Y to do Z
156) X prohobits Y from doing Z …
(Contributed by David)
Note: Add more idioms in comment box. We will add them asap.
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General Grammar Resources
A, An, The (articles)
(Countributed by David)
Note: You can add more links in comments, We will update it asap.
By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawyers (legal advocates in Christian ecclesiastical courts, which dealt with cases involving marriage, inheritance, and other issues) had appeared in most of Western Europe, and a body of professional standards had been defined for them. One might expect that the professional associations would play a prominent role in enforcing these standards of conduct, as other guilds often did, and as modern professional associations do, but that seems not to have happened. Advocatesï¿½ professional organizations showed little fervor for disciplining their erring members. Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement. The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members. In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement, the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers.
At first glance, there seem to be two possible explanations for the rarity of disciplinary proceedings. Medieval canon lawyers may have generally observed the standards of professional conduct scrupulously. Alternatively, it is possible that deviations from the established standards of behavior were not uncommon, but that canonical disciplinary mechanisms were so inefficient that most delinquents escaped detection and punishment.
Two considerations make it clear that the second of these explanations is more plausible. First, the English civil law courts, whose ethical standards were similar to those of ecclesiastical courts, show many more examples of disciplinary actions against legal practitioners than do the records of church courts. This discrepancy could well indicate that the disciplinary mechanisms of the civil courts functioned more efficiently than those of the church courts. The alternative inference, namely, that ecclesiastical advocates were less prone to ethical lapses than their counterparts in the civil courts, seems inherently weak, especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar.
Second, church authorities themselves complained about the failure of advocates to measure up to ethical standards and deplored the shortcomings of the disciplinary system. Thus the Council of Basel declared that canon lawyers failed to adhere to the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal constitutions and directed Cardinal Cesarian to address the problem. In England, where medieval church records are extraordinarily rich, similar complaints about the failure of the disciplinary system to reform unethical practices were very common.
Such criticisms seem to have had a paradoxical result, for they apparently reinforced the professional solidarity of lawyers at the expense of the enforcement of ethical standards. Thus the professionï¿½s critics may actually have induced advocates to organize professional associations for self-defense. The criticsï¿½ attacks may also have persuaded lawyers to assign a higher priority to defending themselves against attacks by nonprofessionals than to disciplining wayward members within their own ranks.
1) Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?
(A) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers probably only enforced ethical standards among their own members when provoked to do so by outside criticisms.
(B) Professional organizations of medieval civil lawyers seem to have maintained stricter ethical standards for their own members than did professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers.
(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against criticsï¿½ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards.
(D) The ethical standards maintained by professional associations of medieval canon lawyers were chiefly laid down in papal constitutions.
(E) Ethical standards for medieval canon lawyers were not laid down until professional organizations for these lawyers had been formed.
2) According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?
(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
(B) English canon lawyers were more likely to initiate disciplinary proceedings against their colleagues than were English civil lawyers.
(C) English civil lawyers maintained more stringent ethical standards than did civil lawyers in the rest of Europe.
(D) English ecclesiastical courts had originally been modeled upon English civil courts.
(E) English ecclesiastical courts kept richer and more thorough records than did English civil courts.
3) The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to
(A) introduce a theory about to be promoted
(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
(C) underline the universality of a method discussed throughout the paragraph
(D) point out a flaw in an argument presented earlier in the paragraph
(E) rebut an anticipated objection to a thesis just proposed
4) The author refers to the Council of Basel (line 47) primarily in order to
(A) provide an example of the type of action needed to establish professional standards for canon lawyers
(B) contrast the reactions of English church authorities with the reactions of other bodies to violations of professional standards by canon lawyers
(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place
(D) explain how rules of conduct for canon lawyers were established
(E) describe the development of a disciplinary system to enforce professional standards among canon lawyers
5) According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?
(A) betraying a clientï¿½s secrets to the opposing party
(B) bribing the judge to rule in favor of a client
(C) misrepresenting credentials in order to gain admission to the lawyersï¿½ guild
(D) spreading rumors in order to discredit an opposing lawyer
(E) knowingly helping a client to misrepresent the truth
6) Which one of the following is most analogous to the ï¿½professional solidarityï¿½ referred to in passage ?
(A) Members of a teachersï¿½ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook.
(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleagueï¿½s news article.
(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat.
(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects.
(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party.
7) The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?
(A) Few guilds of any importance existed before the mid-fourteenth century.
(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members.
(C) Most medieval guilds maintained more exacting ethical standards than did the associations of canon lawyers.
(D) Medieval guilds found it difficult to enforce discipline among their members.
(E) The ethical standards of medieval guilds varied from one city to another.
8) The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?
(A) It is untrue because it is contradicted by documents obtained from the ecclesiastical courts.
(B) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in the same situation in modern society.
(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.
(D) It is impossible to assess intelligently because of the dearth of civil and ecclesiastical documents.
(E) It is directly supported by documents obtained from civil and ecclesiastical courts.
While a new surge of critical interest in the ancient Greek poems conventionally ascribed to Homer has taken place in the last twenty years or so, it was nonspecialists rather than professional scholars who studied the poetic aspects of the Iliad and the Odyssey between, roughly, 1935 and 1970. During these years, while such nonacademic intellectuals as Simone Weil and Erich Auerbach were trying to define the qualities that made these epic accounts of the Trojan War and its aftermath great poetry, the questions that occupied the specialists were directed elsewhere: ?Did the Trojan War really happen?? ?Does the bard preserve Indo-European folk memories?? ?How did the poems get written down?? Something was driving scholars away from the actual works to peripheral issues.
Scholars produced books about archaeology, about gift-exchange in ancient societies, about the development of oral poetry, about virtually anything except the Iliad and the Odyssey themselves as unique reflections or distillations of life itself?as, in short, great poetry. The observations of the English poet Alexander Pope seemed as applicable in 1970 as they had been when he wrote them in 1715: according to Pope, the remarks of critics ?are rather Philosophical, Historical, Geographic?or rather anything than Critical and Poetical.?
Ironically, the modern manifestation of this ?nonpoetical? emphasis can be traced to the profoundly influential work of Milman Parry, who attempted to demonstrate in detail how the Homeric poems, believed to have been recorded nearly three thousand years ago, were the products of a long and highly developed tradition of oral poetry about the Trojan War. Parry proposed that this tradition built up its diction and its content by a process of constant accumulation and refinement over many generations of storytellers. But after Parry?s death in 1935, his legacy was taken up by scholars who, unlike Parry, forsook intensive analysis of the poetry itself and focused instead on only one element of Parry?s work: the creative limitations and possibilities of oral composition, concerning on fixed elements and inflexibilities, focusing on the things that oral poetry allegedly can and cannot do. The dryness if this kind of study drove many of the more inventive scholars away from the poems into the rapidly developing field of Homer?s archaeological and historical background.
Appropriately, Milman Parry?s son Adam was among those scholars responsible for a renewed interest in Homer?s poetry as literary art. Building on his father?s work, the younger Parry argued that the Homeric poems exist both within and against a tradition. The Iliad and the Odyssey were, Adam Parry thought, the beneficiaries of an inherited store of diction, scenes, and at the same time highly individual works that surpasses these conventions. Adam Parry helped prepare the ground for the recent Homeric revival by affirming his father?s belief in a strong inherited tradition, but also by emphasizing Homer?s unique contributions within that tradition.
1. Which one of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) The Homeric poems are most fruitfully studied as records of the time and place in which they were written.
(B) The Homeric poems are the products of a highly developed and complicated tradition of oral poetry.
(C) The Homeric poems are currently enjoying a resurgence of critical interest after an age of scholarship largely devoted to the poems? nonpoetic elements.
(D) The Homeric poems are currently enjoying a resurgence of scholarly interest after am age during which most studies were authored by nonacademic writers.
(E) Before Milman Parry published his pioneering work in the early twentieth century, it was difficult to assign a date or an author to the Homeric poems.
2. According to the passage, the work of Simone Weil and Erich Auerbach on Homer was primarily concerned with which one of the following?
(A) considerations of why criticism of Homer had moved to peripheral issues
(B) analyses of the poetry itself in terms of its literary qualities
(C) studies in the history and nature of oral poetry
(D) analyses of the already ancient epic tradition inherited by Homer
(E) critiques of the highly technical analyses of academic critics
3. The passage suggests which one of the following about scholarship on Homer that has appeared since 1970?
(A) It has dealt extensively with the Homeric poems as literary art.
(B) It is more incisive than the work of the Parrys.
(C) It has rejected as irrelevant the scholarship produced by specialists between 1935 and 1970.
(D) It has ignored the work of Simone Weil and Erich Auerbach.
(E) It has attempted to confirm that the Iliad and the Odyssey were written by Homer.
4. The author of the passage most probably quotes Alexander Pope (lines 24-26) in order to
(A) indicate that the Homeric poems have generally received poor treatment at the hands of English critics
(B) prove that poets as well as critics have emphasized elements peripheral to the poems
(C) illustrate that the nonpoetical emphasis also existed in an earlier century
(D) emphasize the problems inherent in rendering classical Greek poetry into modern English
(E) argue that poets and literary critics have seldom agreed the interpretation of poetry
5. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of Milman Parry?s immediate successors in the field of Homeric studies?
(A) They reconciled Homer?s poetry with archaeological and historical concerns.
(B) They acknowledged the tradition of oral poetry, but focused on the uniqueness of Homer?s poetry within the tradition.
(C) They occupied themselves with the question of what qualities made for great poetry.
(D) They emphasized the boundaries of oral poetry.
(E) They called for a revival of Homer?s popularity.
6. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) A situation is identified and its origins are examines.
(B) A series of hypotheses is reviewed and one is advocated.
(C) The works of two influential scholars are summarized.
(D) Several issues contributing to a currently debate are summarized.
(E) Three possible solutions to a long-standing problem are posed.